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Achievement of high implementation fidelity is one of the best ways of replicating the success with interventions achieved by original research. Successful evidence-based practice is governed by many things [ 41 ], and implementation fidelity is one of them. This paper offers a more complete conceptual framework for implementation fidelity than proposed hitherto, and explains why and how implementation fidelity should be evaluated. The framework is multifaceted, encompassing both the intervention and its delivery. Adherence relates to the content and dose of the intervention, ., has the content of the intervention – its 'active ingredients' – been received by the participants as often and for as long as it should have been. However, the degree to which full adherence, ., high implementation fidelity, is achieved may be moderated by factors affecting the delivery process, such as facilitation strategies, quality of delivery, and participant responsiveness.

This conceptualisation provides researchers with a potential framework for implementation research. Monitoring of implementation fidelity following this framework enables better evaluation of the actual impact of an intervention on outcomes. In turn, the credibility and utility of the resulting research would be enhanced accordingly. It also offers evidence-based practitioners a guide to the processes and factors at play when implementing interventions described in research. However, much more research is needed on this topic. Empirical research is needed to test the framework itself and to clarify the moderating impact of the components included here.


NHS Service Delivery and Organisation Research and Development Programme for funding this work as part of a project on the validity and reliability of measures of Human Resource Management. We would also like to thank the referees for their valuable comments on the original submission.

13012_2007_69_MOESM1_ESM.pdf Authors’ original file for figure 1

The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.

CC drafted the paper; CC, MP, and SW are responsible for the intellectual content of the paper. All authors approved the final manuscript.

School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR), University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK
Institute of Work Psychology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Adam Michael Wood

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Suppose you generate several sets on the fly, and you want to find the elements that are in all the sets. That's easy, it's the intersection of sets.

But let's suppose that one or more of your sets is empty. The intersection of any set and an empty set is an empty set. But, that's not what you want. (Well, it wasn't what I wanted, anyway.)

Suppose you want the intersection of all non-empty sets.

List comprehension

If the sets are in a list, you can remove the empties. Then unpack the list into the function.

The asterisk before unpacks the list into a series of positional arguments. This is needed because takes an arbitrary number of sets, not an iterable full of sets. (It's the same asterisk as in in function definitions.)

(Note: You use a filter instead of a list comprehension, but Guido thinks a list comprehension is better . I agree.)

With iterable unpacking (tuple unpacking)

In my case, I was generating the sets in my code, and the solution set always contained only one item. And I wanted the item, not a set with the item. So...

The comma after turns the assignment into a tuple unpacking. If you unpack a collection of one, you get the single item.

By the way, if you end up with more than one item in your collection, and only want the first item, you can do:

The indicates a variable number of positional arguments (it's the same asterisk as in and in passing the list to above), and the underscore is used as a convention for "not using this stuff."

I'll be using that below, in the actual code.

Why would you ever do this?

The generalized problem

From a pool of items, there are three attributes to select for. Specifying any two of them should produce one and only one result.

More specifically...

Musical intervals.

A musical interval has:

If you know any two of these, you can select the correct one.

Some actual code

In the actual code , there's a bunch of other things going on, but this is the general idea.

Another approach

For my specific use case, another approach is simply to not create a set for the unspecified attribute.

In my working code, I actually do both. This allows for a potentially meaningful result even if something is specified incorrectly. I could have decided to let bad input cause explicit failure, but I think I'd rather not in this case.

So... what's the point?

This post looks like a tutorial on list comprehension. Or maybe set operations. But really this post is about problem solving while writing code.

The code solution to this problem is really easy... but .

I started with the following problem:

So I started Googling variations on that theme. But there aren't any "intersection of just the good sets" functions. Then I tried to start writing a question for Stack Overflow, and as soon as I had written the title, I knew the answer.

As soon as I broke my one problem into two steps, the problem was immediately solved:

At the same moment I realized these steps, it also become clear that the original group of sets should be a collection, not just several unrelated objects.

So, the moral of the story is...

If you can't find the solution to your specific problem, restate your problem as a series of steps.

Find the intersection of all non-empty sets, from an arbitrary pool of sets, not knowing which ones would be empty.

/ Update on Ionic View for iOS

As some of you may have heard, the Ionic View app was removed from the app store by Apple last week and is still unavailable in the store as of today (it is still available on Android, of course). In the interest of transparency, I want to update the community on what is going on and our thoughts on how we move forward.

The story starts two weeks ago when we received an Apple App Store rejection for our Ionic View app, an app that helps developers test their Ionic apps as they build them.

Initially, the rejection was for the use of a QR code to allow developers and testers to quickly load an app. We removed the QR code and disabled public app testing, and resubmitted. A week later, our app was rejected again and removed from the store by Apple due to something we missed as we fixed the QR code issue. We fixed that mistake and resubmitted but at that point the app was already out of the store.

Today, a week after the last resubmission, we received notice that our app violates a different part of the App Store ToS, specifically 2.5.2 that specifies “Apps should be self-contained in their bundles, and may not read or write data outside the designated container area, nor may they download, install, or execute code, including other apps.” This is a grey area in the ToS that we have always felt in compliance with, considering Ionic View merely loads web content like a custom web browser, and is incapable of executing any additional native code outside of the binary we ship to the app store. In fact, later sections of the App Store ToS explicitly mention that loading outside code is okay as long as it uses WebKit or JavaScriptCore, though the developer testing nature of Ionic View is admittedly different from the traditional use case of an app loading web content updates.

After over two years of no problems, this was a surprise to us!

We have been in contact with other cross-platform tooling companies, even those not based on Cordova or WebViews, and they have received similar rejections or threats of rejection from Apple. This indicates that Apple is changing their policy against developer testing apps in general, and if that is the case, we expect that all cross-platform tooling companies will have their testing apps removed from the app store soon.

To be clear, this issue mean that Apple is rejecting hybrid or JavaScript apps. Rather, it is isolated to developer testing apps. Any claims to the contrary are simply inaccurate and we have received reports from the Ionic community that their apps are being rejected.

We are working with Apple to find a solution. In the meantime, we are working on a way forward that lets us achieve the main goal of View to make it easier for developers to build apps quickly, while being compliant with App Store guidelines.

Thank you for your understanding, and stay tuned for updates as we receive them from Apple.

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